Le Secrétaire général cite trois « priorités absolues » pour une contribution effective de l’action climatique au maintien de la paix et de la sécurité internationales

On trouvera ci-après la déclaration que le Secrétaire général de l’ONU, M. António Guterres, a faite aujourd’hui à la réunion du Conseil de sécurité sur le climat et la sécurité : 

I thank the Irish Presidency for organizing this timely debate.  Last month, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a deeply alarming report.  It shows that climate disruption caused by human activities is widespread and intensifying.  The report is indeed a code red for humanity.

Much bolder climate action is needed ahead of COP26 [Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change] with G20 [Group of 20] nations in the lead — to maintain international peace and security.  Our window of opportunity to prevent the worst climate impacts is rapidly closing.  No region is immune.  Wildfires, flooding, droughts and other extreme weather events are affecting every continent.

The effects of climate change are particularly profound when they overlap with fragility and past or current conflicts.  It is clear that climate change and environmental mismanagement are risk multipliers.  Where coping capacities are limited and there is high dependence on shrinking natural resources and ecosystem services, such as water and fertile land, grievances and tensions can explode, complicating efforts to prevent conflict and to sustain peace.

In Somalia, more frequent and intense droughts and floods are undermining food security, increasing competition over scarce resources and exacerbating existing community tensions from which Shabaab benefits.  In the Middle East and North Africa, which are among the world’s most water-stressed and climate‑vulnerable regions, a major decline in precipitation and a rise in extreme weather events is harming water and food security.

Last year, more than 30 million people were displaced by climate-related disasters.  Ninety per cent of refugees come from countries that are among the most vulnerable and least able to adapt to the effects of climate change.  Many of these refugees are in turn hosted by countries that are also suffering the impacts of climate change, compounding the challenge for host communities and national budgets.

And as the devastation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic continues to cause immense suffering, it is undermining Governments’ ability to respond to climate disasters and build resilience.

The threats are clear and present.  But, it is not too late to act to ensure that climate action contributes to international peace and security.  Let me highlight three absolute priorities in climate action.

First, we need unambiguous commitment and credible actions by all countries to limit global warming to 1.5°C to avert the most catastrophic impacts of climate change.  I urge all Member States to show more ambition in their nationally determined contributions by COP26 and to translate their commitments into concrete and immediate action.  Collectively, we need a 45 per cent cut in global emissions by 2030.

Second, to deal with the already dire impacts of climate disruption on the lives and livelihoods of people all over the world, we need a breakthrough on adaptation and resilience.  It is essential that at least 50 per cent of climate finance globally is committed to building resilience and supporting adaptation.  This need is urgent, as growing climate impacts remind us daily.  Annual adaptation costs in developing countries are estimated at $70 billion, and they are expected to reach up to $300 billion a year by 2030.

Huge gaps remain in adaptation finance for developing countries.  We simply cannot achieve our shared climate goals — nor achieve hope for lasting peace and security — if resilience and adaptation continue to be the forgotten half of the climate equation.

This neglect is seriously endangering our collective efforts on the crucial road to COP26 in November.  Developed countries must uphold their promise to deliver — before COP26 — $100 billion dollars in climate finance annually to the developing world.  And they must ensure this reaches the most affected populations.  The quality of this finance is also key.  Grant financing is essential, as loans will add to already crushing debt burdens in the most climate‑vulnerable countries.

Third, climate adaptation and peacebuilding can and should reinforce each other.  For example, in the Lake Chad region, dialogue platforms for cooperatively managing natural resources, supported by the Peacebuilding Fund, have promoted reforestation and improved access to sustainable livelihoods.  In West and Central Africa, cross-border projects have enabled dialogue and promoted more transparent management of scarce natural resources, a factor of peace.

And as climate change is impacting water resources worldwide, we must leverage water for peace, drawing lessons from the past.  For example, in the Sava River Basin in Eastern Europe, transboundary water cooperation was the starting point of regional reconciliation and cooperation after the deadly war in the Balkans in the 1990s.

Across all these efforts, women are critical agents of change.  This Council has long recognized and sought to strengthen women’s role in sustaining peace.  Women and girls face severe risks from both climate change and conflict, and their meaningful participation and leadership brings more sustainable results that benefit more people.

L’ONU tient compte des risques climatiques dans ses analyses politiques ainsi que dans ses initiatives de prévention des conflits et de consolidation de la paix.  Le Mécanisme de sécurité climatique aide les missions sur le terrain, les équipes pays et les organisations régionales et sous-régionales à analyser et traiter les risques que le climat fait peser sur la sécurité et à mettre au point des interventions intégrées et rapides. 

Ce travail prend de l’ampleur dans les pays et les régions où le Conseil de sécurité a reconnu que les changements climatiques et écologiques compromettaient la stabilité.  Notre Bureau pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest et le Sahel, en coordination avec l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations, le Programme des Nations Unies pour l’environnement et la Convention-Cadre sur les changements climatiques, a lancé une nouvelle initiative relative à la paix, aux changements climatiques et à la dégradation de l’environnement.  Cette initiative aidera la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest, ainsi que d’autres organismes régionaux, gouvernements nationaux et locaux, à harmoniser leurs efforts visant à réduire les risques que le climat fait peser sur la sécurité dans la sous-région.

Au Soudan du Sud, 95 pour cent de la population vit de l’agriculture ou du pastoralisme et est donc touchée par la sécheresse et les inondations non saisonnières.  La MINUSS, notre opération de maintien de la paix, collabore avec la FAO et l’OIM pour favoriser le règlement pacifique des conflits entre agriculteurs et éleveurs.  

Nous avons également conscience de la responsabilité que nous avons de réduire l’empreinte carbone de l’ONU.  Quatre-vingts pour cent des émissions de carbone du Secrétariat des Nations Unies proviennent de nos six plus grandes opérations de maintien de la paix.  Guidés par notre Stratégie environnementale pour les opérations de paix, nous mettons au point de nouvelles solutions pour transférer l’approvisionnement en énergie aux producteurs d’énergies renouvelables, avec l’intention de soutenir les capacités en matière d’énergies renouvelables, y compris au-delà de la durée de vie de nos missions. 

Nous faisons tous partie de la solution.  Œuvrons ensemble pour atténuer les effets du dérèglement climatique et nous y adapter, afin de bâtir des sociétés pacifiques et résilientes.

À l’intention des organes d’information. Document non officiel.