African Union-Led Peace Support Operations Need Predictable, Adequate, Sustainable Support, Speakers Stress to Security Council
African Union-led peace support operations need predictable, adequate and sustainable support in light of a demonstrably inadequate current international peace architecture, senior officials from both the United Nations and the African Union told the Council today, as members discussed how best to leverage the latter organization’s regional expertise to address current and future crises in a context-specific manner.
Rosemary DiCarlo, Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, noted recent efforts by the United Nations and the African Union to support the restoration of constitutional order in Mali, Burkina Faso and Guinea. Today, such organizations are supporting efforts to bring peace and civilian-led order to Sudan. However, while African Union-led peace support operations have demonstrated significant political will and commitment, they face funding shortfalls, the absence of requisite operational and logistical capabilities and a lack of force enablers and multipliers.
Underlining the pressing need to “put AU peace operations on solid footing”, she observed that, in Africa and elsewhere, rising insecurity is characterized by an increased use of asymmetric and sophisticated tactics by armed groups and the expanding influence of transnational organized crime. “The case for adequately funding AU-led peace support operations is beyond solid,” she stressed, expressing hope that the Council will agree to provide its backing — including by allowing access to assessed contributions.
Bankole Adeoye, African Union Commissioner for Political Affairs, Peace and Security, also underlining the need for assessed contributions, cited the African Union’s adoption of a consensus paper on predictable, adequate and sustainable financing. That paper proposes three actionable financing models: United Nations assessed contributions for a hybrid mission; assessed contributions through a United Nations support office model; and direct support to African Union subregional peace support operations.
Ongoing crises in Somalia, the Lake Chad Basin, the Sahel, the Great Lakes and Mozambique provide the world with valuable lessons on the inadequacy of the current international peace architecture, he pointed out. The ad hoc nature of such missions is simply not sustainable, he said, calling on the Council to change its methods and intensify its solidarity. “On this special day of the African Union, we say it loudly and clear that African women, children and youth — mostly the victims of conflict — can no longer afford to wait,” he stated.
Meanwhile, Bitania Tadesse, Program Director of Amani Africa, said that the subject of this session is not about money. Rather, it is first and foremost about which arrangement that can best save “succeeding generations from the scourge of war” when existing tools for delivering on this promise have been found wanting. As the progress made in Somalia clearly attests, the African Union’s peace support operations are willing and — when properly resourced, able — to use peace enforcement to create conditions for peace. “This is not about writing a blank cheque, nor is it a matter of charity,” she asserted. Rather, it is about the Council crafting the framework for shouldering its part of the responsibility in the shared global public good of maintaining peace and security in Africa.
In the ensuing debate, many Council members stressed the importance of peacekeeping missions in Africa and urged that such efforts enjoy predictable funding so they can fulfil their mandates. While many also welcomed proposals to use assessed contributions for this purpose, others emphasized that such use must be subject to Council authorization and be consistent with the Organization’s peacekeeping standards. Further, while underlining the importance of context-specific peacebuilding, some members also spotlighted the benefit of harnessing the specialized expertise of African Union-led peace support operations.
The representative of Ghana, also speaking for Gabon and Mozambique, underlined that African-led peace support operations have demonstrated their capability to understand the context and dynamics of conflicts in Africa, pre-empt the same and advance durable strategies to address them. Detailing the African Union’s commitments in the areas of compliance, financial transparency and burden-sharing, he expressed support for the Secretary-General’s call for adequate, sustainable and predictable funding, from assessed contributions, for African Union-led peace support operations.
However, Brazil’s representative stated that peace operations making use of such contributions should be subject to appropriate Council oversight, with support decisions taken on a case-by-case basis and always in accordance with the political, security and humanitarian features specific to each situation. While unwavering support must be translated into meaningful, consistent contributions, he joined others in underscoring that focus on funding should not overshadow the need for political solutions to remain at the centre of mission mandates.
Japan’s representative also noted that sustainable peace requires context-specific peacebuilding, as each conflict has its own distinguishing features. A strong understanding of the unique circumstances of each situation in Africa — and an approach that is crafted accordingly — should be a comparative advantage of the African Union’s peace support operations. As such, he expressed support for the establishment of a mechanism through which such operations — when authorized by the Council — could be partly financed through United Nations assessed contributions on a case-by-case basis.
Similarly, the representative of the United Arab Emirates emphasized that, as there is no one-size-fits-all solution to responding to conflict, the same logic should apply to the funding that supports it. The African Union’s knowledge of the local environment and the dynamics therein is unmatched, she stressed, stating that international reliance on this expertise and experience is justified. Underlining the resultant need for joint assessment and planning when a crisis emerges, she added: “Peace is a shared endeavour, and this responsibility should come with the necessary resources.”
At the outset of the meeting, Viola Amherd, Vice-President of Switzerland and Council President for May, invited those present to stand and observe a moment of silence to honour the more than 4,000 men and women who have given their lives in the service of peace.
The meeting began at 10:03 a.m. and ended at 12:49 p.m.
ROSEMARY DICARLO, Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, marking 60 years since the signing of the charter of the Organisation of African Unity, said that cooperation between the African Union — its successor — and the United Nations has grown significantly since the 2017 signing of the Joint United Nations-African Union Framework for Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security. Both organizations have joined efforts in the Central African Republic, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan in conflict-prevention and conflict-resolution initiatives; peacekeeping and peacebuilding; the climate emergency; and women, peace and security. Recently, they also supported efforts by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to restore constitutional order in Mali, Burkina Faso and Guinea. Today, the United Nations, the African Union and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) are supporting efforts to bring peace and civilian-led order to Sudan.
Observing that the African Union has shown its readiness over the last 20 years to speedily deploy peace support operations in response to armed conflicts on the continent, she said that its missions in Burundi, the Central African Republic, Comoros, Mali, Somalia and Sudan have contributed to the maintenance of continental peace and security. However, while such missions have demonstrated significant political will and commitment, they have also faced recurrent challenges such as funding shortfalls, the absence of requisite operational and logistical capabilities and a lack of force enablers and multipliers.
She went on to say that while United Nations support has been useful, it has also often been unpredictable. “Perhaps the most novel form of cooperation between our two organizations has been UN support to AU peace enforcement missions in Somalia,” she observed, recalling that in 2009 the Council mandated partial support from assessed contributions to ensure that the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) had sustainable and predictable support to carry out its mandate.
Underlining the pressing need to “put AU peace operations on solid footing”, she observed that, in Africa and elsewhere, rising insecurity is characterized by an increased use of asymmetric and sophisticated tactics by armed groups and the expanding influence of transnational organized crime. Noting that the need to provide predictable, flexible and sustainable financing for African Union-led peace support operations “is well-known to this Council”, she spotlighted the Secretary-General’s report on recommendations for securing support for such operations that are mandated by the Council (document S/2023/303).
In that regard, she pointed out that the report outlines a standardized consultative planning and mandating process, through which the United Nations, the African Union and subregional configurations can together assess the required response to an emerging crisis. Such a process would reassure the Council that a given situation has been systematically reviewed by all relevant entities, and therefore would help the organ decide whether assessed contributions can be mandated. Adding that “the case for adequately financing AU-led peace support operations is beyond solid”, she expressed hope that the Council will agree to provide its backing — including by allowing access to assessed contributions.
BANKOLE ADEOYE, African Union Commissioner for Political Affairs, Peace, and Security, noting that parts of Africa remain hotbeds for insecurity, emphasized that traditional peacekeeping methods cannot continue in light of the continent’s complex conflicts — namely terrorism, violent extremism, hatred, rebellion and insurgency. There must be a paradigm shift from peacekeeping to peace enforcement especially since current African Union-led peace support operations cannot respond to the need for sustainability, effectiveness and innovative funding. There is a fundamental goal of accessing much-needed assessed contributions, which are in the international community’s interest. To that end, the African Union — through its Assembly — has adopted a consensus paper on predictable, adequate and sustainable financing which proposes three actionable financing models: United Nations assessed contributions for a hybrid mission; assessed contributions through a United Nations support office model; and direct support to African Union subregional peace support operations.
“It is indeed the right time if we are to decisively respond with one appropriate mechanism and support model to address these critical conflict issues on our continent,” he stressed. The ongoing crises in Somalia, the Lake Chad Basin, the Sahel, the Great Lakes and Mozambique provide the world with valuable lessons on the inadequacy of the current international peace architecture: the ad hoc nature of such missions are simply not sustainable. Despite this, the African Union remains committed to the unwavering display of African ownership and African solutions to African problems with an emphasis on burden and responsibility sharing with the international community . This can be seen by its provision of over $340 million to its Peace Fund and its operationalization of the Crisis Reserve Facility which has supported the African Transition Mission in Somalia (ATMIS) among others. Commending African Union member States for their demonstration of Pan-Africanism, he voiced his hope that the international community — as represented by the Council — will play its role.
He went on to report the significant progress in mainstreaming and implementing international human rights law, international humanitarian law, conduct and discipline standards within mission planning, conduct, management and liquidation. Such efforts have notably been facilitated through the tripartite partnership between the African Union, European Union and the United Nations, which has also enabled a number of training programmes. As well, the African Union has undertaken initiatives to operationalize the African Standby Force, he added.
“On this special day of the African Union, we say it loudly and clear that African women, children and youth — mostly the victims of conflict — can no longer wait and afford to wait any longer,” he stressed. In that vein, he called on the Council to change its methods and intensify its solidarity. Agenda 2063, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the African Union’s Silencing the Guns project will all be better served if the Secretary-General’s recommendations are concretized into relevant action, he emphasized, underlining the African Union’s conviction that its peace operations will serve as a global good for the preservation of peace and security.
BITANIA TADESSE, Program Director, Amani Africa, said the subject of this session is not about money. Rather, it is first and foremost about the kind of arrangement that can best deliver on the pledge of “saving succeeding generations from the scourge of war” at a time when existing tools for delivering on this promise have been found wanting. The question of financing of the African Union’s peace support operations has been an important part of the policy discourse on international peace and security in Africa for nearly 15 years. At the turn of the century, the Protocol Establishing the Peace and Security Council was cognizant of the necessity for resort to the use of United Nations assessed contributions. This was premised on recognizing that when the African Union deploys peace support operations with the Security Council authorization, it does so as part of the arrangement deemed necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.
She underscored that, as witnessed in the African Union’s peace support operations under the Council’s authorization, the full potential of this arrangement can only be realized if such operations are provided with sustainable and predictable funding. This Council has on many occasions affirmed the imperative for such funding. Highlighting significant progress with respect to the compliance framework for the African Union’s peace support operations pursuant to resolutions 2320 (2016) and 2378 (2017), she recalled that the Union has also established a unit dedicated to compliance. Implementing compliance standards can be enhanced with further support, she added.
With respect to burden-sharing, the most critical development is the revitalization of the African Union’s Peace Fund dedicated to mobilizing funds from within the continent for financing the Union’s peace and security work, she continued. Although the question is framed narrowly in monetary terms, she also said: “There are questions about giving consideration to the enormous price that AU personnel pay with their lives and limbs and the resultant financial, social and other costs that result from such loss to the families, communities and institutions that these personnel are part of.”
Further, she emphasized that the conflict situations in various parts of the continent — including those in which the major United Nations peacekeeping operations are currently engaged — require the combination of peace enforcement, stabilization and peacebuilding instruments. Lacking these tools, the United Nations missions in the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Mali have faced enormous challenges. As the progress made in Somalia clearly attests, the African Union’s peace support operations are willing and — when properly resourced — able to use peace enforcement for creating conditions for peace.
In similar conflict situations, the African Union’s peace support operations financed through the United Nations assessed contribution can be the necessary alternative to United Nations peacekeeping, she noted, adding: “At a time when there is apathy to using UN peacekeeping, using AU PSO [peace support operations] offers the Council the avenue for preventing the emergence of such a dangerous vacuum for security arrangements that don’t operate on the basis of multilateral principles.” Also stressing that “the future of multilateralism lies in Africa”, she underscored that the interest of the peoples of the African continent is best served under a multilateral system, even when it is imperfect. More so, African Union-led peace support organizations financed by UN assessed contributions are cost effective. “This is not about writing a blank cheque nor is it a matter of charity,” she stated. Rather, this is about the Council crafting the framework for shouldering its part of the responsibility in the shared global public good of maintaining peace and security in Africa.
VIOLA AMHERD, Vice-President of Switzerland and Council President for May, speaking in her national capacity, emphasized that peacekeeping missions are particularly important in Africa. Even more significantly, 13 of the top 20 nations that contribute troops are African, which need predictable funding to fulfil their mandates. This also applies to the regional missions authorized by the Security Council, she said, welcoming the proposal to use assessed contributions for this purpose. The African Union is well placed to play an active role in addressing current and emerging security challenges on the continent. A precondition for United Nations funding is that all security forces respect international humanitarian law, human rights and refugee law. In this regard, she commended the progress made by the African Union since 2018 on the normative framework for peace support operations, adding that it now needs to be implemented through a robust structure to prevent violations, enforce compliance with applicable standards and allow for independent investigations. Regional ownership of peace operations is crucial and regional organizations must be able to plan, support and finance their operations autonomously. With that in mind, she spotlighted the African Union Consensus Paper adopted this year.
HAROLD ADLAI AGYEMAN (Ghana), also speaking for Gabon and Mozambique, emphasized that “it is evident” that if the Council is to remain effective in addressing complex, persisting conflicts in Africa, it must retain its capacity to leverage existing partnerships between the United Nations and regional and subregional arrangements to address new and emerging threats on the continent. Recalling the adoption of resolutions 2320 (2016) and 2378 (2017), he said that “there is a very good basis” for the Council to unlock the potential of African Union-led peace support operations as critical enablers for the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals, the Silencing the Guns initiative and the African Union’s Agenda 2063. This is because such operations have demonstrated their capability to understand the context and dynamics of conflicts on the continent, pre-empt the same and advance durable strategies to address them. He also emphasized that the African Union has committed to strengthening its compliance framework and mechanisms for respecting human rights and international humanitarian law and conforming to high standards for discipline and conduct in its peace-support-operation doctrines, training principles and practices.
The African Union has made steady, significant progress in enhancing its financial rules and arrangements to ensure transparency in the use of — and accountability over — funds allocated for peace support operations, he pointed out. Turning to the issue of joint planning and decision-making for missions, he welcomed safeguards provided by the African Union and the United Nations to avoid arbitrariness in this process. On the issue of burden-sharing, he welcomed clarification provided by an African Union consensus paper on the allocation of 25 per cent of the Union’s budget towards broader peace and security activities, underscoring that a common understanding is crucial for constructive deliberations. Further, existing command-and-control architecture in presently deployed African Union-led peace support operations authorized by the Council could serve as a ground for future discussion on that topic. Adding that engagement by the countries for whom he speaks will aim to bridge the ambitions of the African Union and the expectations of other Council members, he expressed support for the Secretary-General’s call for adequate, sustainable and predictable funding, from assessed contributions, for African Union-led peace support operations.
RONALDO COSTA FILHO (Brazil) stressed that unwavering support must be translated into more meaningful and consistent contributions. Peace operations making use of the Organization’s assessed contributions should be subject to appropriate Council oversight, with support decisions taken on a case-by-case basis and always in accordance with the political, security and humanitarian features specific to each situation. There must also be an adequate set of frameworks on human rights, international humanitarian law, troop conduct and discipline compliance, he said, noting that such standards become even more critical when African Union missions perform tasks with higher risks, as is often the case when operations go beyond peacekeeping. He called for the completion of the joint guidelines for operational planning, deployment, review and transition of African Union peace support operations. These proper standards and regulations should notably encompass other areas to equip missions with the appropriate tools to tackle challenges, such as strategic communication to combat hate speech and disinformation. Conducting a thorough assessment of available operational support capabilities and adaptation needs would also be key. Nevertheless, the focus on funding should not overshadow the need for political solutions to remain at the centre of mission mandates, he underscored.
ISHIKANE KIMIHIRO (Japan), noting that sustainable peace requires context-specific peacebuilding, highlighted that each conflict has its own distinguishing features, and any successful operation must give these careful geopolitical, economic and cultural considerations. A strong understanding of the unique circumstances of each situation in Africa, and an approach that is crafted accordingly, should be a comparative advantage of the African Union’s peace support operations. To address increasingly complicated challenges effectively, the United Nations and the African Union must continue to strengthen their partnership to maximize their combined capacities, he said, noting that the latter will eventually support its capacity on its own. In this regard, he expressed support for the establishment of a mechanism through which the African Union’s peace support operations — authorized by the Council — could be partly financed through United Nations assessed contributions, on a case-by-case basis. He stressed the need to prioritize conflict prevention and peaceful settlement of disputes through peaceful means. Further, effective cooperation on joint planning and burden-sharing is key in the full spectrum of peace support activities throughout their lifecycles. He also underlined that ensuring proper oversight and accountability is the prerequisite for any support by United Nations assessed contributions.
NATHALIE BROADHURST ESTIVAL (France), pointing out that African peace operations provide the Council with a specific and rapid reaction under controllable costs, urged the organ to make progress on ensuring their sustainable and predictable funding. For its part, Paris — a historic supporter for financing from assessed contributions — will support Accra, Libreville and Maputo in relaunching Council discussions including through a draft resolution. That draft text should enable members to affirm the added value of African peace operations moving towards consultative planning and a decision-making mechanism. It should also take stock of the African Union’s efforts in human rights, international humanitarian law, conduct and discipline. Lauding the bloc for its work done with the support of the United Nations and European Union to adopt a compliance framework, she encouraged the African Union to continue its efforts towards the framework’s full implementation. It is the responsibility of the Council to support the African Union and its member States in responding to the continent’s security challenges, especially since this is the very rationale of the New Agenda for Peace, she added.
JAMES KARIUKI (United Kingdom) underscored that the changing nature of conflict in Africa requires both the United Nations and the African Union to adapt their different capabilities to prevent, mitigate and respond to evolving peace and security challenges. While addressing the funding gaps and capability shortfalls which have affected performance is a key challenge, the framework set out in Council resolution 2320 (2016), however, has not translated into practical support. Since each operation’s financing needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis, the Council must ensure that the Secretariat provides its support on determining options for future operations and that the organ has an early role in determining the scope of joint United Nations-African Union assessment and planning. Additionally, the Council must ensure that the African Union can effectively apply its compliance framework to new operations and encouraged sustainable efforts to continue those frameworks’ development. Moreover, it must openly and clearly establish how it intends to share the financial burden, he stressed, warning that any scope for misinterpretation will result in new initiatives being stalled. He voiced his Government’s commitment to working with all countries to develop a working financial mechanism that enables predictable and sustainable support.
LINDA THOMAS-GREENFIELD (United States) underscored that using assessed contributions for African Union peace support operations — which her Government supports in principle — must be subject to Council authorization, follow the conditions of Council resolutions 2320 (2016) and 2378 (2017) and be consistent with the Organization’s peacekeeping mission standards. The African Union’s past track record has shown that it often has the political will, expertise, language skills and ability to respond to the continent’s security challenges, she said, urging the Council to work together on mechanisms to mitigate challenges and risks associated with using assessed funds. To that end, the organ must authorize African Union peace operations on a case-by-case basis while retaining oversight, as it does for United Nations peace operations elsewhere. As is also the case for the Organization’s operations, the General Assembly should have budgetary oversight and approval consistent with United Nations regulations, rules, policies and procedures. Moreover, any authorized operations must work towards a political solution. Underlining her expectation that the African Union fully implement its human rights, conduct and discipline performance frameworks, she said her Government remains committed to the meaningful burden-sharing of the bloc’s peace operations.
ZHANG JUN (China), underlining the fundamental principle of African solutions to African problems, emphasized: “It is about resolving funding issues, not about turning [African Union] forces into another [United Nations] peacekeeping force.” Human rights protection must be put in the right place, especially since African countries have already made considerable efforts to strengthen their forces’ capacities and raise awareness. Nobody is perfect on human rights, he pointed out, stressing that it is not acceptable to presume the existence of human rights protection issues. African Union peace support operations as a whole cannot be dismissed simply because of previous isolated cases of human rights violations or possible future ones. Moreover, human rights accountability provisions must not be used as a pretext to delay the discussion of funding options which must complement existing funding modes. Traditional contributors in particular must refrain from submitting their contributions for the continent to the United Nations with a changed name to shirk their historic responsibility. Stressing that there must not be a one-size-fits-all approach to funding, he encouraged discussions on financing to be considered in a holistic manner with the reform of United Nations peacekeeping operations.
ANDRÉS EFREN MONTALVO SOSA (Ecuador), advocating for “African solutions to African problems”, said that desire does not mean peace and security in Africa are isolated from the rest of the world, or that the participation of countries from other regions in seeking solutions is excluded. The situation on the African continent will continue to be a priority for the international community which has an important role to play, including in areas such as cooperation, assistance and financing for development and peacebuilding. The Council recognized that one of the main limitations facing the African Union to carry out effectively its operations is the need for predictable and sustainable funding. Resources are always scarce, and decisions regarding their distribution must be analysed in depth, on a case-by-case basis. Success of peacekeeping operations is determined by respect for the basic principles of peacekeeping, such as consent of the parties, impartiality and the non-use of force, except in legitimate defence and in defence of a mandate authorized by the Council. Likewise, peacekeeping operations do not eliminate the need to tackle the root causes of conflicts, he asserted, adding that it is crucially important to grant adequate funding to the peacebuilding fund and to invest in sustainable development — “the only path to a lasting peace”.
VASSILY A. NEBENZIA (Russian Federation), welcoming African States’ contributions to United Nations peacekeeping on the continent and beyond, supported such countries’ position on the need to increase predictable, sustainable funding. “It is not normal to depend on irregular assistance from States,” he emphasized. African countries know best the root causes of instability in the region, have created regional peace architectures and have the mechanisms needed to complement United Nations efforts in this regard. Noting that the United Nations has extended material and financial assistance many times — including in Somalia, Darfur and Mali — he observed that the advantages of African peacekeeping are its ability to quickly react to emerging threats and its readiness to use force to restore peace, which is important given the threat of terrorism on the continent alongside an absence of peace agreements. As crises and armed conflicts are increasing in Africa, a lack of resources for such efforts will result in the further spread of instability. He added that regional players’ readiness to expend 25 per cent of their resources on peace and security “shows not in words but in deeds” the active nature of the principle of “African solutions for African problems”.
FRANCESCA MARIA GATT (Malta), underlining her Government’s commitment towards adequate, predictable and sustainable funding for African Union peace support operations, said that the responsibility and ownership for the Union to lead must be met by equal Council commitment. In that regard, the Council must use its enhanced relationship with the African Union to improve cooperation on addressing the continent’s crises in a complementary manner which jointly strengthens approaches to common challenges and interests. Properly financed African Union support operations in turn would allow the Council to perform in a broad peacekeeping space, possibly with more than one operational model. Genuine engagement in solving pending matters, such as burden-sharing, is still required, she acknowledged, spotlighting the European Union’s long-standing and extensive cooperation which has included, among other things, €600 million to support the military aspects of African-led peace support operations. While the European Union remains committed to continued cooperation, there should be additional funding from a diversified donor base to truly ensure peace operations’ sustainability. Cooperation with regional and subregional organizations in maintaining peace and security can improve collective security, she said, urging all: “Now is the time to translate these principles into reality.”
ARIAN SPASSE (Albania) welcomed the determination of the African Union to assume a greater role in maintaining peace and security in Africa, in partnership with the United Nations. There is a clear demand for a stronger partnership between the two organizations to confront the immense challenges that the continent faces, including rampant violence, terrorist activities and failure of State institutions to provide basic goods. This partnership needs to ensure steady and predicable financial support for peacekeeping and peace supporting missions in Africa, to counter the daunting challenges facing the continent. As well, the security challenges that Africa faces require a long-term and sustainable strategy that allows for the mobilization of financial and political support to eradicate violence and threats to peace and security. This strategy needs to be human-centred and gender-sensitive, he said, stressing that all human rights violations must be effectively investigated. In this regard, he welcomed the tripartite cooperation between the African Union, the United Nations and the European Union. He underscored that the threats faced by peacekeeping missions, including those coming from armed extremists and transnational organized crime, “must be taken extremely seriously”.
AMEIRAH OBAID MOHAMED OBAID ALHEFEITI (United Arab Emirates) pointed out that, over the last 20 years, the international peace and security architecture has demonstrated its reliance on African Union leadership to respond to conflicts on the continent in places such as Burundi, Mali and Somalia. The African Union’s knowledge of the local environment and the dynamics therein is unmatched, she emphasized, stating that international reliance on this expertise and experience is justified. Therefore, joint assessment and planning exercises are critical to responding effectively when a crisis emerges. “Peace is a shared endeavour, and this responsibility should come with the necessary resources,” she observed. She also welcomed the African Union’s continued development and implementation of its compliance framework for international humanitarian law, human rights, conduct and discipline, as well as its decision to significantly increase the ceiling of the crisis reserve facility. That decision — along with additional contributions to the African Union’s Peace Fund — illustrates a commitment to financial burden-sharing and ownership of conflict resolution across the continent. She added that, as there is no one-size-fits-all solution to responding to conflict, the same logic should apply to the funding that supports it.