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Seventieth Session,
11th & 12th Meetings (AM & PM)

Dissemination of Technology Essential in Achieving Equality, Poverty Eradication, Speaker Says, as Second Committee Discusses Globalization, Interdependence

Economic stagnation and lacklustre recovery from the global economic crisis had revealed dysfunction in international organizations and the need to reform unequal power structures, the Second Committee (Economic and Financial) was told today as it took up consideration of “Globalization and interdependence”.

The representative of Bangladesh, speaking on behalf of the Group of Least Developed Countries, spoke of the disparity in development, noting that this morning for breakfast he had a banana from Ecuador, cereal from Canada and milk from the United States.  Meanwhile, millions of people found themselves in the difficult situation of needing international assistance to cope with everyday life.

As global people living in a global village, “we feel ashamed of ourselves when we observe people dying from hunger and suffering from economic deprivation,” he said.  That challenge would continue to grow as the youth in least developed countries were expected to increase by 34 per cent over the next 15 years.

Mexico’s delegate said that cooperation, in general, and dissemination of technology, in particular, was essential in achieving equality and poverty eradication.  Bridging the digital divide required embracing the information society which was plural, transparent, decentralized, democratic and egalitarian.

He said that the 2008 financial crisis had demonstrated the fragility of middle‑income countries as well and expressed concern that indicators based on numerical averages did not accurately reflect the problems of middle‑income countries.  Once States graduated from low‑income to middle‑income status they were no longer eligible for aid and that threatened much of their progress.

Poverty in middle‑income countries was multidimensional in nature and should be addressed as such, the representative Costa Rica stressed.  The representative of Belarus, pointing out that 70 per cent of the world’s poor lived in middle-income countries, said it was unfortunate that the United Nations did not have a cohesive plan in dealing with those nations but was rather engaging with them on a piecemeal basis.

Also speaking today, Morocco’s delegate said the financial crisis had revealed dysfunction in international institutions.  He urged institutional reform to ensure decision‑making was more equitable, democratic and responsive to the needs of all countries.  That included integrating all States into financial markets, reforming the Bretton Woods institutions, and concluding the Doha Round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations to make trade fairer.

Echoing that sentiment, the representative of India called for the reform of unequal power structures and outdated models.  At various international financial institutions, even modest proposals for incremental reform remained buried under selective legal obscuration.

The role of science, technology and innovation in development was also highlighted throughout today’s debate, with the delegate from Ethiopia pointing to how his country’s national policy had exploited science, technology and innovation to enhance production and productivity, as well as competitiveness in agriculture and manufacturing.

Earlier in the morning, reports were introduced to the Committee by the Chief of Science and Technology at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and two officials from the Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Also speaking today was South Africa (on behalf of the “Group of 77” developing countries and China), the Philippines (on behalf of Association of Southeast Asian Nations), Ecuador (on behalf of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States), Belarus, Singapore, Philippines (in her national capacity), Russian Federation, Brazil, Ukraine, Algeria, Malta, Cuba, Bahrain, Morocco, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Botswana, Libya, Paraguay, Nepal, Jamaica (on behalf of the Caribbean Community), Peru, Zimbabwe, Thailand, Honduras, Azerbaijan, Guatemala and Cameroon.

The representative of Armenia and Azerbaijan spoke in exercise of the right of reply.

A representation of the Holy See and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) also addressed the Committee today.

The Second Committee will meet at 10 a.m., Monday, 19 October to begin its discussion on “Sustainable development”.

Introduction of Reports

DONG WU, Chief of Science and Technology at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), introduced the report of the Secretary-General on “Science and technology for development” (document A/70/276).  She focused on main areas and recommendations covered in the report.  One major challenge common to developing countries, she said, was how to relate science, technology and innovation strategies to national development strategies.  The innovative capacities of societies were critical in the transition to inclusive and sustainable pathways of development.  Science, technology and innovation strategies were often not well integrated into sectoral development plans.  That was often due to weak governance processes and a lack in the clear division of roles.  The report also highlighted findings from the Conference’s recent research including innovative policy tools for inclusive development, global value chains, and gender sensitive science and technology policies.

JOOP THEUNISSEN, of the Office for Economic and Social Council Support and Coordination, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, introducing the report of the Secretary-General on the “Role of the United Nations in promoting development in the context of globalization and interdependence” (document A/70/326) said that successful implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development would depend on the international community’s ability to manage globalization and revitalize the partnership for development.  The report also identified economic, social and environmental challenges that could affect the success of the Agenda.  Trends in globalization had caused expanding trade, but that growth was “uneven and unpredictable”.  Youth unemployment and fragile labour markets must be tackled through a multidimensional approach that included social protection.  Further, while globalization was often associated with lifestyle changes, an expanding middle–class increased the burden on the environment.

MATTHIAS KEMPF, Economic Affairs Officer, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, introducing the report of the Secretary-General on development coordination with middle-income countries (document A/70/227), said that with 104 countries in that category, it was inherently difficult to speak of common trends.  Nevertheless, certain features stood out, including the slowing of economic growth.  The middle-income countries of Asia featured the strongest performance.  The overall weak performance had a ripple effect on different economic areas.  The employment situation, after solidly positive trends in the direct aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, had also weakened with fewer jobs being generated.  Such cyclical developments came on top of more structural problems such as large gaps in youth unemployment and the prevalence of informal work.

Ms. BALENI (South Africa), speaking on behalf of the “Group of 77” developing countries and China, said that although globalization could be a powerful and dynamic force for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda, its benefits remained elusive for developing countries.  She underscored the importance of North-South, South-South, triangular, regional and international cooperation, as well as access to science and environmentally sound technologies for development.  The United Nations must continue to provide strategic leadership and direction for modern science and technology in pursuit of development goals.  Only through innovation could humanity address obstacles to sustainable development.

She said that her Group remained committed to promoting principles which underpinned South-South Cooperation.  Developing countries needed to support one another in sharing best practices on science, technology and innovation policies.  On culture, she said it was essential to human development as it represented a source of “identity innovation” and creativity for the individual and community.  The 2030 Agenda stressed the need for international cooperation and relationship-building through inter-cultural understanding, tolerance and mutual respect.  The United Nations remained an anchor in promoting such global dialogue.

IRENE SUSAN BARREIRO NATIVIDAD (Philippines), speaking on behalf of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and aligning herself with the Group of 77, said that as the United Nations was a central player in norm-setting and global policy integration, it must strengthen coordination with regional organizations.  Her Group had worked with the United Nations to synergize programmes in development, food and energy security, and connectivity.  In the economic dimension, the Group had made significant progress towards the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community, with achievements in trade facilitation, investment, financial services, tourism and infrastructure, among other areas.

Turning to environmental dimensions, she added that the Member States of her Group were strengthening cooperation in tackling climate change, pandemics and natural disasters.  The ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting with Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in September had recognized the importance of considering the implementation of the Group’s Community Vision 2025 alongside the 2030 Agenda to complement one another, particularly in reducing poverty and hunger, tackling inequalities and promoting women’s empowerment.  Both sides had also agreed to redouble efforts to enhance the efficiency of their cooperation through strategic and long-term planning and stable funding sources.

ABULKALAM ABDUL MOMEN (Bangladesh), speaking on behalf of the Group of Least Developed Countries and associating himself with the Group of 77, noted that this morning, he was privileged to have a banana from Ecuador, cereal from Canada and  milk from the United States, but saddened to observe the violence in Palestine and the Middle East.  As a global people living in a global village, “we feel ashamed of ourselves when we observe people dying from hunger and suffering from economic deprivation.”  Many people in the least developed countries found themselves in the difficult situation of needing international assistance to cope with everyday life.

With stagnation and low progress in poverty reduction observed in 16 of the least developed countries, he continued, it was clear the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals were highly uneven.  Stressing the importance of adequate resources and technology transfer, he noted that the youth population in least developed countries would increase by 34 per cent over the next 15 years.  That population with its high potential and keen learning spirit should find employment globally for a win-win situation, and the international community must follow the guidelines regarding migration in the 2030 Agenda.  It was also important to help those countries merge into the global technology highway.

SERGIO SHCHERBAKOV (Ecuador), speaking on behalf of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), said that it was time for the international community to realize that technology cooperation was the “linchpin” for promoting sustainable development.  The recently launched Technology Facilitation Mechanism must contribute to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.  It was also important to address the challenges of small island developing States whose size, limited capacities and diseconomies of scale have proven to be major hindrances in accessing appropriate technologies.

On culture and sustainable development, he said that cultural diversity characterized his region as it was multi-ethnic, multicultural and multilingual.  Furthermore, CELAC supported the necessary measures to safeguard traditional knowledge and wisdom that were part of the Latin American and Caribbean identity.  It was important to address the huge development challenges middle-income countries faced as well.  Any strategy for global poverty relief must include appropriate support for middle-income countries as nearly 70 per cent of the world’s poor lived in those States.

ANDREI DAPKIUNAS (Belarus) said there were more than 100 middle‑income countries and that those States accounted for a majority of the world’s population.  Most people living in poverty were concentrated in those countries.  Progress on poverty was the best indicator in how quickly the global community would achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.  The problem was particularly acute in middle‑income countries as compared to other States.  It was not surprising that recently there was growing interest in those countries, which Belarus had participated in promoting with several conferences.  There was not a single approach for dealing with comprehensible assistance to middle‑income countries.  Unfortunately, United Nations involvement in those States was rather on a “piecemeal” basis without a real cohesive plan, and the challenges facing those countries were growing.  The 2030 Agenda would require a different level of interaction with technical and financial resources, he said, emphasizing the need for regular, joint and united action from United Nations agencies, funds and programmes.

SALVADOR DE LARA RANGEL (Mexico), associating himself with CELAC, said that cooperation for development was a centrepiece in eradicating poverty and closing the gaps of inequality.  The dissemination of technology was essential in achieving targets of equality and poverty eradication and closing the digital divide.  The information society was plural, transparent and decentralized and therefore more democratic and egalitarian.  Culture was a facilitator and a contributor to socioeconomic progress.  For its part, Mexico insisted that developed countries and international organizations must allocate more to middle‑income countries as they faced more challenges to development.  Many of those States had the potential to achieve the development of industrialized countries but they risked falling back to low-income status.  The 2008 financial crisis demonstrated the fragility of middle‑income countries, he said, adding that indicators based on numerical averages did not accurately reflect the problems of middle‑income countries.  States placed in the bottom level of classification of middle‑income countries often slipped back into the low-income bracket, he said, expressing concern that such reclassification affected aid and therefore, had important consequences.

JAIME SEAH (Singapore), associating herself with the Group of 77 and ASEAN, said her country’s survival hinged on its integration into the global economy.  Domestic stability, rule of law, transparency, accountability and market-oriented policies had helped it become competitive.  As a multi‑racial, multi‑religious country, its challenge was to maintain national identity and social cohesion.  “We cannot take our racial and religious harmony for granted,” she said.  Efforts had been made to increase a sense of belonging, notably through inter‑racial and religious confidence circles, that strengthened relationships across ethnic and religious groups.  Through her country’s Smart Nation initiative, Singapore was harnessing technology, networks and data.  It was building infrastructure for nationwide broadband, increasing IT literacy in the education system, and creating conditions for ideas to be easily tested and brought to market.

IRENE SUSAN BARREIRO NATIVIDAD (Philippines), speaking in her national capacity and associating herself with the ASEAN and the Group of 77, said that despite her country being among the fastest emerging economies of Asia, poverty had risen by 25.8 per cent in the first semester of 2014 due to food price inflation.  That showed that middle‑income countries were not yet in a comfortable situation just because they had passed “what many believe is an arbitrary threshold”.  Sadly, 73 per cent of the world’s poorest people were to be found in middle-income countries and it was necessary to complement mobilization of domestic resources with official development assistance (ODA) and capacity‑building.

SERGEY B. KONONUCHENKO (Russian Federation), expressing support for the recommendations in the Secretary-General’s report, said that the international community should concentrate on strengthening the global financial structure and the building of a non-discriminatory trading system based on World Trade Organization (WTO) rules.  Unless there was real movement in that, most countries in the world could not enjoy the “so-called fruits of globalization”.  His country had supported the General Assembly’s adoption of the basic principles for restructuring sovereign debt.  Calling upon international financial institutions and the countries of the G-20 to participate actively in that process, he added that the broadening network of development banks would strengthen the synergies of the fastest growing economies of the world.

SÉRGIO RODRIGUES DOS SANTOS (Brazil), associating himself with the Group of 77, CELAC and the Group of Friends on Culture and Development, said that globalization had huge social, economic and environmental impacts and its benefits had been unevenly distributed globally.  The United Nations needed to be at the forefront of a more integrated, inclusive and sustainable vision for globalization trends.  The Organization should prioritize providing guidance on challenges posed by growing social and economic inequalities and unsustainable patterns of consumption and production.  The international community must take advantage of the opportunities created by globalization and interdependence by adapting global governance structures to the new global reality.  Turning to culture, he said that it was a cross-cutting element of the 2030 Agenda and had a significant role to play in changing the unsustainable patterns of consumption, especially those associated with the consumerist lifestyles of wealthy societies.

YAROSLAV GOLITSYN (Ukraine), welcoming the Sustainable Development Goals on science and technology, said it was crucial to implement those Goals through the work of the Commission on Science and Technology for Development and UNCTAD.  His country stood for the promotion of North-South close interaction including the use of the capacities of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) country offices in relevant regions.  Ukraine was a proud provider of global innovation in a number of critical fields.  International and governmental support of science and technology education through scholarships and grants would enable the synergy of development and sustainability.

MOURAD MEBARKI (Algeria), associating himself with the Group of 77, said his country remained concerned by the negative impacts of globalization, particularly commodity price and exchange rate volatility, food insecurity, unstable energy prices and challenges posed by climate change.  Macroeconomic stability was “incontestably” critical for sustainable development.  The global economic system must provide a mechanism of sovereign debt restructuring.  ODA remained critical as well to eradicate poverty and promote the right to development for all.  It was also important to mitigate the negative and dramatic changes in labour markets, due to computerization and offshoring.  That would be possible through social security and minimum wage policies and the creation of decent work.  The United Nations remained the only global body with universal membership and therefore was best positioned to address such challenges.

CHRISTOPHER GRIMA (Malta), associating himself with the European Union, said the international community could not discuss progress without also discussing the women, girls and gender minorities who faced inequalities on a daily basis.  Recalling General Assembly resolution 68/22 (2013), which recognized the vital role of science and technology in addressing global challenges and urged Governments to mainstream a gender perspective in legislation, he said the 2030 Agenda would not be achieved unless women and girls were given ample opportunities to enter and excel in the fields of science and technology, health, and politics.  Malta would present a resolution proposing an International Day of Women in Science to raise awareness of the issue.

YAIMA DE ARMAS (Cuba), associating herself with the Group of 77, CELAC, and the Alliance of Small Island States, urged strengthening the role of the General Assembly as the United Nations’ most representative and democratic body.  The United Nations, indispensable for implementing the 2030 Agenda, was the appropriate place for Member States to exchange their priorities and perspectives.  However, development gaps separating the global North and South continued to grow, she said, calling for strengthened South-South, North-South, and triangular cooperation.  The transfer of technology and cultural diversity was critical for sustainable development.  Using income to classify countries was a limited approach, as it prevented addressing structural problems.  She strongly opposed income‑based aid allocation, as it affected middle‑income countries, citing the United States blockade against Cuba in that regard.  Despite those limits, Cuba would continue to make progress and would “never cease” cooperation with other countries.

AMIT NARANG (India), said the adoption of the 2030 Agenda was an important step in managing globalization and responding to its challenges.  But it was also important to look carefully at the governance of international institutions and reform unequal power structures and outdated models.  The Security Council was only “the most grotesque example of global power oligopoly”, he said, noting that at various international financial institutions, even modest proposals for incremental reform remained buried under “selective legal obscuration”.  Another aspect of globalization was the open-ended flow of ideas and India called on the international community to adopt “a culture of frugality”, of taking only what was required from nature, which was part and parcel of traditional Indian wisdom.

Ms. ALMANSOOR (Bahrain) said the 2030 Agenda had a number of comprehensive objectives, such as eradicating poverty and ending diseases.  Science and technology could play a crucial role in achieving those goals, and all countries, whether developed or developing, depended on the use of information and communications technology.  More than 90 per cent of the world’s population used mobile phones and 44 per cent of families used the Internet.  However, there was still a digital gap between developed and developing countries.  Least developed countries might find themselves left out of the information community.  Bahrain continued to set up programmes that maximized the use of information and communications technology for development.

Mr. OUMIYER (Morocco), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said the economic and financial crisis had revealed dysfunction in international institutions.  World governance had been threatened, highlighting the need to integrate financial markets and reform Bretton Woods institutions, and he cautioned against abandoning protection mechanisms.  Concluding the Doha Round of WTO negotiations would help achieve fairer trade regulations.  Climate change and nuclear proliferation required a global solution which included all stakeholders.  Institutional reform was needed to ensure that decision-making was more equitable, democratic and responsive to the needs of all countries.  No efforts must be spared in implementing the 2030 Agenda and he emphasized the role of the private sector and foreign direct investment in that context.

ROLANDO CASTRO CORDOBA (Costa Rica), associating himself with the Group of 77 and CELAC, expressed concern that the United Nations had not developed an action plan for middle‑income countries.  Poverty was multidimensional in nature and should be addressed as such.  To ensure system-wide impact in sustainable development work, countries should work together to exchange best practices.  Middle‑income countries must have access to technology and financial resources.  Recently graduated middle-income countries remained vulnerable, and could fall back into low‑income country status.  Achieving the 2030 Agenda required a comprehensive approach, tackling the social, economic and environmental pillars of sustainable development.

LEULSEGAD TADESSE ABEBE (Ethiopia), associating himself with the Group of 77, the African Group, and the Group of Least Developed Countries, highlighted the United Nations’ role in making globalization a catalyst for a revitalized global partnership for sustainable development.  Science and technology facilitated poverty eradication.  As such, Ethiopia’s development planning included science, technology and innovation as pillars for enhancing production and productivity, as well as competitiveness in agriculture and manufacturing.  Its science, technology and innovation policy aimed to create a national innovation system that used appropriate technologies, he said, noting that the Addis Ababa Action Agenda would be critical in promoting science, technology and innovation.

TLHALEFO MADISA (Botswana), associating with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said middle‑income countries faced grave challenges, including poverty, lack of access to health, safe drinking water and high unemployment.  Those countries were home to more than 70 per cent of the world’s extreme poor and had high levels of inequalities.  The broad classification of middle‑income countries masked pockets of poverty and serious gaps in overall progress towards achieving development goals.  Botswana supported the development of a comprehensive strategic framework for cooperation with middle-income countries which encompassed a refined classification system and a broader way of measuring wealth. 

ABDULMONEM A. H. ESHANTA (Libya), associating with the Group of 77, said globalization would play a key role in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and it must be used as a positive force.  Science and technology could improve the socioeconomic situation of developing countries, and therefore, his delegation stressed the transfer of technology and capacity building through international mechanisms, in accordance with the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.  Bridging the digital divide would enable developing countries to tackle the multiple challenges that hindered their progress.

FEDERICO ALBERTO GONZÁLEZ FRANCO (Paraguay) said that the United Nations must continue to be an instrument of understanding between the peoples of the world.  The work of the Committee was crucial in promoting such dialogue.  Respect for cultural diversity and promoting multilingualism were essential for building a culture of peace.  Calling for the preservation of traditional wisdom and indigenous cultural heritage, he added that a multidimensional approach to poverty was necessary.  Appropriate consideration must be given to the needs of landlocked developing countries.  Further, there should be a mechanism for the transfer of technology to countries that suffered due to the digital divide.

LOK BAHADUR POUDEL CHHETRI (Nepal), associating himself with Group of 77 and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said that the excruciatingly competitive environment created by globalization had placed a heavy burden on the least developed States.  The United Nations must make globalization work for all countries.  His State emphasized the importance of the implementation of the Istanbul Programme of Action and the Vienna Plan of Action.  Turning to migration, he said it was a form of globalization that supplied the human resources required for progress in developed countries.  As such, it was necessary to make a coordinated effort at the national, regional and international levels to protect the basic human rights of migrant workers.

E. COURTENAY RATTRAY (Jamaica), speaking on behalf of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and associating himself with the Group of 77, CELAC and the Alliance of Small Island States, said that globalization and interdependence were not an option but a vital imperative for the States of his region.  However, globalization had also given rise to and exacerbated serious developmental challenges such as slow economic growth, rising levels of unemployment, inequality of income and vulnerability to natural hazards.  The countries of his Community, burdened by decreasing access to foreign direct investment (FDI) and high ratios of public debt, called for a revitalized global partnership for development.

CARICOM Member States, he added, stressed the elimination of policy inconsistencies that undermined development progress.  The international regimes, institutions and policies that governed the various elements of sustainable development should adapt to facilitate the growing interdependence between and within policy areas and minimize their contradictions.  That was necessary to maximize the synergies between various global arrangements in the areas of environmental sustainability, migration, debt, trade, aid, finance and other development issues.

GUSTAVO MEZA-CUADRA (Peru), speaking on behalf of the Group of Friends on Culture and Development, said that Agenda 2030 built on General Assembly resolution 68/223, which emphasized the importance of the contribution of culture to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.  The Group, comprised of more than 30 countries from all regions, continued to pursue a more visible and effective integration and mainstreaming of culture into the three dimensions of sustainable development.

His Group looked forward to reviewing progress in five culture‑related interlinked areas in Agenda 2030:  strengthening efforts to protect and safeguard cultural and natural heritage (Target 11.4); promoting development-oriented policies that supported creativity and innovation leading to cultural and creative industries, including sustainable tourism (Targets 8.3 and 8.9); developing and implementing tools that monitored sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism (Target 12.b); ensuring that all learners acquire the skills to promote sustainable development, including through a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity (Target 4.7); and promoting access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge (Target 2.5).

FREDERICK SHAVA (Zimbabwe), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, noted the rapid and unprecedented rise of globalization over the past three decades.  The “glaring reality” was that developing countries continued to be marginalized as they faced rising poverty, growing inequality and environmental degradation.  He called for the equitable sharing of the benefits of globalization by all countries.  An urgent reform and democratization of the Bretton Woods institutions and the WTO were needed.  The United Nations must urge the former to redesign their policies and programmes to benefit the developing countries.  Those States should not be forced to abandon their domestic programmes which provided essential social services to their populations.  Neither should they be forced to embrace ideological models of development with no proven record of success.  Structural adjustment programmes prescribed by the Bretton Woods institutions that focussed exclusively on expenditure reduction and economic liberalism heightened poverty and inequality.

Ms. PREMCHIT (Thailand), associating herself with the Group of 77 and ASEAN, said that socioeconomic inequalities remained an overriding trend in middle‑income countries.  Without balanced urban-rural economic development, income disparity would continue to deter economic growth.  To ensure that local economies could thrive in global markets and withstand international competition, human resource development, capacity-building and access to technology were important.  Assisting communities allowed them to reach beyond local markets to harness globalization for sustainable development.

Mr. VELASQUEZ (Honduras) said that each State was the responsible for its own development.  Mobilizing financial resources and technology transfer through public and private associations was critical.  As a middle‑income country, Honduras was not seen as a priority recipient of aid and “in the middle of the development tunnel”.  To that end, his State supported a multidimensional poverty index which presented the real situation, challenges and needs of the people living in middle-income countries.  It was moral and ethical to bring assistance to where it was needed most, and importance must be given to capacity-building and promoting creativity and innovation by producing more job opportunities in the cultural sector.

KHANIM IBRAHIMOVA (Azerbaijan) underscored the vital role of technology in development as every day one billion people accessed the Internet.  Her country had pioneered in unlocking the region’s mass potential in meeting development aspirations.  However, an inadequate infrastructure complicated that progress.  On culture and sustainable development, intercultural dialogue played a major role in developing her country.  Looking at the crossroads of East and West, Azerbaijan served as an intercultural bridge between civilizations.  It was through culture that the message of development could get across.  However, her country’s contribution to peace had been hampered by Armenia, she said, adding that her State had opened a political opportunity for dialogue.

MARÍA CONCEPCIÓN CASTRO MAZARIEGOS (Guatemala), associating herself with CELAC and the Group of 77, said that the 2030 Agenda called for the integration of all parts of the international development system.  To become an Organization that responded effectively, it was necessary to stop working in silos.  The United Nations must be recognized as the place where global rules could be established for an interconnected world.  It was vital to establish a multilateral framework for debt restructuring and tackling money laundering and tax havens.  In an interconnected world, the problems that affected one State could affect other countries and migration was an example of that.  The international community must continue to practice the solidarity that was a guiding principle in the negotiations for the 2030 Agenda.

ALAIN WILFRIED BIYA (Cameroon), associating himself with the Group of 77, said that science and technology were at the heart of the 2030 Agenda and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda because they were crucial to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.  Therefore, it was key to support developing countries to benefit from technological progress so they could increase their capacity for production.  Regarding cooperation for development of middle‑income countries, he added that the current country classification based on per capita gross national income was inadequate in measuring poverty.  The Secretary‑General’s report had highlighted the need for incorporating a range of indicators such as human development index on levels of inequality in income and access to social services.

BERNADITO AUZA, Permanent Observer of the Holy See, said that globalization could work for good or ill, depending on the underlying ethics.  Pope Francis had warned forcefully and repeatedly against a “globalization of indifference”.  While more countries were benefiting from greater participation in the global economy, large portions of their populations continued to be excluded from the benefits of that progress.  Turning to youth unemployment, he added that the search for work and better economic opportunities was one of the main drivers of increasing migration and that pressure would only increase.  Governments alone could not create new employment opportunities.  Therefore, economic policy instruments must encourage the private sector to invest in activities that generated jobs.

ASHRAF EL NOUR, International Organization for Migration (IOM), said managing the causes and consequences of migration required coherent, holistic polices and broad, inclusive partnership.  To ensure an integrated approach to migration, he called on Governments and the United Nations to build partnerships that leveraged existing bodies and avoided duplicating entities.  His organization had worked with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners, notably through a global forum and regional consultative processes, which gathered a range of stakeholders for informal dialogue and information exchange on migration issues.

Right of Reply

Exercising the right of reply, the representative of Armenia said improper references and “forum shopping” were made by the representative of Azerbaijan.  By doing so, Azerbaijan conveniently failed to mention its ethnic cleansing and State massacres against Armenians.  She said the Second Committee must adhere to the principles of its work rather than deviate from the subject.

Exercising the right of reply, the representative of Azerbaijan said Armenia’s statement was utterly false and urged the delegation of Armenia to respect all resolutions of the United Nations and engage in peaceful talks to resolve the conflict.

For information media. Not an official record.