Despite ‘Glimmer of Hope’ in Armenia, Azerbaijan Conflict, Escalating Tensions Threaten to Derail Fragile Progress, Senior Official Tells Security Council
Country Representatives Claim
Other Side Continues Provocations, Violates Trilateral Statement
Despite a “glimmer of hope” regarding diplomatic efforts by Armenia and Azerbaijan towards a resolution of their ongoing dispute, a current escalation of tension and incidents threatens to derail fragile progress and unleash a dangerous resumption of violence, a senior United Nations official told the Security Council today.
Miroslav Jenča, Assistant Secretary-General for Europe, Central Asia and Americas, Departments of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs and Peace Operations, noted that since his last briefing, the parties have regularly traded accusations of ceasefire violations. Following renewed violence in mid-September, there have been several high-level diplomatic initiatives — including a meeting in October between Nikol Pashinyan, Prime Minister of Armenia, and Ilham Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan, in Prague, resulting in an agreement to deploy the European Union monitoring capacity in Armenia.
He further recalled that in late October, leaders of the country met again in Sochi, hosted by Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation, where they agreed to refrain from use or threat of force. In addition to the European Union mission agreed on by both sides, the Organization for Security and Co‑operation in Europe (OSCE), as well as the Collective Security Treaty Organization — at the request of Armenia — have also deployed missions to Armenia.
Regrettably, he noted that tensions on the Armenian-Azerbaijani border and around areas under control of Russian Federation peacekeeping forces have not abated. While representatives of both Armenia and Azerbaijan have provided widely differing accounts of the situation and accused each other of violating the 9 November 2020 trilateral statement, he underscored that the potential human toll of resumed conflict could be considerable. It would not only impact people of Armenia and Azerbaijan, but the wider South Caucasus region and beyond, he said, urging the parties to redouble efforts for a negotiated peaceful settlement before it is too late.
In the ensuing debate, Member States called for calm and diplomacy, expressing concern over the Lachin Corridor situation, while the representatives of Armenia and Azerbaijan exchanged charges that the other side is continuing provocations and has violated the trilateral statement.
The representative of Armenia said that the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh is close to turning into a humanitarian catastrophe. Negotiations by the region’s authorities with the Azerbaijani side to restore the Lachin Corridor’s safe and unhindered operation have not yielded results. That country’s unabated provocations have shown that, without strong accountability measures including sanctions, it will continue to test the determination of the international community and the Council.
Citing the ongoing major crisis in Europe, he noted that growing energy challenges means some States opt to engage with a hydro-carbon exporting State, like Azerbaijan. However, he stressed that this cannot be conducted at the expense of the fundamental human rights and physical security of the people of Nagorno-Karabakh. He urged the Council to demand that Azerbaijan fully respect the provisions of the trilateral statement of 9 November 2020 and immediately unblock the Lachin Corridor.
Azerbaijan’s delegate pointed out that what is erroneously called “Nagorno-Karabakh” is the internationally recognized sovereign territory of his country, the Karabakh economic region. Resolutely rejecting all of Armenia’s claims on the Lachin Corridor situation, he said that neither his Government nor protesting activists have blocked the Corridor, which has been misused for the illicit trafficking of minerals and other resources from Azerbaijan, a matter that his Government has consistently raised to the attention of the international community.
Also pointing out that Armenia has refused to fully withdraw its armed forces and share the complete set of maps of the mines it placed in his country, he called on the international community to persuade Armenia to reciprocate his Government’s offer: abide by its international obligations; end its illegal activities, territorial claims and political and military provocations; and engage in good faith direct negotiations.
The Russian Federation’s delegate expressed concern over the blocking of the Lachin Corridor, under the control of a Russian peacekeeping contingent, and recalled that both sides undertook commitments including the obligation to ensure civilians do not face difficulties. She urged the parties to exercise restraint, refrain from steps that increase tensions and abide by agreements reached in four trilateral statements between the leaders of the three countries.
The representative of Gabon also echoed concern over the closure of the Lachin Corridor which could result in a humanitarian crisis, highlighting the importance of drawing lessons from the large-scale September clashes and calling on all parties to restrain from provocative rhetoric and abide by the ceasefire agreement. Recognizing the position of Azerbaijan’s authorities, she encouraged an independent investigation, encouraging both parties to de-escalate and lower tensions.
Albania’s delegate cited concerns about the exploitation of natural resources, calling on both sides to fully engage in talks to find mutually agreed solutions. He welcomed the agreement between their leaders in early October to send the European Union mission of observers on the Armenia-Azerbaijan border, noting both sides’ commitment to sign a peace treaty as soon as possible — as there is no alternative to a negotiated solution through the path of diplomacy.
Also speaking were the representatives of France, United Arab Emirates, China, United States, United Kingdom, Brazil, Kenya, Mexico, Norway, Ghana, Ireland and India.
The meeting began at 3:33 p.m. and ended at 4:53 p.m.
MIROSLAV JENČA, Assistant Secretary-General for Europe, Central Asia and Americas, Departments of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs and Peace Operations, noted that since his last briefing, the situation has remained fragile, with the sides regularly trading accusations of ceasefire violations. Despite these sporadic incidents, a glimmer of hope for progress in ongoing diplomatic efforts has appeared following renewed violence in mid-September, with several high-level diplomatic initiatives. In October, Nikol Pashinyan, Prime Minister of Armenia, and Ilham Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan, met in Prague in the margins of the first European Community meeting at the invitation of Emmanuel Macron, President of France, resulting in an agreement to deploy the European Union monitoring capacity in Armenia, with its mandate ending yesterday. A longer European Union mission in Armenia is being envisaged, with the goal of contributing to peace in the region.
He recalled that in late October, leaders of the country met again in Sochi, hosted by Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation, where they agreed to refrain from use or threat of force. Several other meetings at the Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister-level took place in recent months. Discussions were held regarding possible settlements, including the critical issues of border limitation and demarcation, within the framework of mutual recognition of their territorial integrity and sovereignty. In addition to the European Union mission agreed on by both sides, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), as well as the Collective Security Treaty Organization — at the request of Armenia — have also deployed missions to Armenia. The Secretary-General’s bilateral meetings with the Prime Minister of Armenia and Jeyhun Bayramov, Foreign Minister for Azerbaijan, urged progress towards a peaceful settlement. The United Nations will remain in close contact with all relevant actors and concerned parties and stands ready to support ongoing peace efforts. The United Nations country teams in both States are also continuing to undertake programmatic assessments, including to accessible conflict-impacted areas.
Regrettably, despite promising diplomatic engagements, he noted that tensions on the Armenian-Azerbaijani border and around areas under control of Russian Federation peacekeeping forces have not abated as hoped, with various incidents being reported. On 12 December, there were reports of protests near the Russian Federation peacekeeping post on the Lachin Corridor — a vital artery for people in the area — with protesters claiming illegal exploitation of mineral resources and environmental impact on the area. He noted that the United Nations is not present in the Corridor or the areas under Russian Federation peacekeeper control and, thus, is not able to verify claims and allegations. Representatives of both Armenia and Azerbaijan have written to the Secretary-General and the Security Council regarding recent events, challenging each other’s claims and providing widely differing accounts of the situation. Both sides have accused the other of violating the 9 November 2020 trilateral statement signed by Armenia, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation.
Also citing media reports and statements from peacekeepers indicating that some humanitarian supplies have gotten through, he stressed it is imperative that those in need be permitted travel freely and access basic services. Welcoming the commitment of peacekeeping forces to facilitate and ensure safe passage through the corridor, he recalled that on 14 December, the Secretary-General urged the sides to deescalate tensions and ensure freedom of security and movement through the Corridor in line with previous agreements. Country teams in both States maintain open channels with authorities and are prepared to respond to humanitarian needs if requested. Underscoring that the potential human toll of resumed conflict could be considerable — not only impacting people of Armenia and Azerbaijan, but the wider South Caucasus region and beyond — he emphasized that the international community must not allow that to happen. The parties must implement the tripartite statement and subsequent agreements and redouble efforts for a negotiated peaceful settlement before it is too late.
NATHALIE BROADHURST ESTIVAL (France), expressing her concern over recent events, said the obstructions to the corridor between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh isolates the population of Nagorno-Karabakh and has humanitarian consequences which are worsening every day. She called for the unconditional restoration of movement and supplies to Nagorno-Karabakh as well as respect for the rights of the people residing there. The commitments undertaken in the trilateral statement on the ceasefire of 9 November 2020 must be implemented, she stressed, emphasizing that the safe movement of persons, vehicles and goods along the Lachin corridor must be guaranteed in both directions. She also called for immediate, free and unhindered access for humanitarian organizations and United Nations agencies, especially the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), to the populations concerned. For their part, Armenia and Azerbaijan must create a climate conducive to the successful conclusion of ongoing negotiations and make progress — exclusively through dialogue and without the use of force — in settling all outstanding issues. Alongside the European Union, France will continue to promote dialogue between Armenia and Azerbaijan and will support the efforts to make progress on all subjects under negotiation, including the draft peace treaty, delimitation of the border, humanitarian issues and the opening of channels of communication, she said.
MOHAMED ISSA ABUSHAHAB (United Arab Emirates) expressed his concern over the heightening of tensions and reiterated the importance of de-escalation and restraint. He called for parties to ease the situation for civilians and avoid making their lives more precarious. Echoing the Secretary-General’s statement on ensuring freedom and security of movement along the Lachin Corridor, he highlighted the need to find a comprehensive and sustainable settlement and underlined the importance of the trilateral statements. He reiterated that there is no lasting military solution to conflict and urged the parties to resolve their differences through peaceful and diplomatic means, engaging constructively and in good faith with mediation efforts.
FERIT HOXHA (Albania) said he appreciated that both sides are committed to dialogue and a peaceful resolution of all issues, despite different views on certain issues. Noting the importance of ensuring freedom and security of movement along the corridor, he said the agreements reached between the two countries should be respected and implemented from both sides. Regarding concerns about the exploitation of natural resources, he called on both sides to fully engage in talks to find mutually agreed solutions. He welcomed the agreement between Armenia and Azerbaijani leaders in early October to send the European Union mission of observers on the Armenia-Azerbaijan border, adding that such developments are the right course. Noting both sides’ commitment to sign a peace treaty as soon as possible, he said there is no alternative to a peace-negotiated solution through the path of diplomacy.
GENG SHUANG (China) said that relevant disputes surrounding the Lachin Corridor should be resolved through dialogue and consultations. Welcoming the Russian Federation’s work towards this end, he expressed hope that disputes between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the Corridor will be resolved as soon as possible. Armenia and Azerbaijan are close neighbours. Achieving shared security and development through cooperation is in the interests of both countries. He also noted that, in recent years, trilateral statements between Armenia, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation regarding the cessation of hostilities, economic and transportation cooperation and border issues demonstrate the political will of Baku and Yerevan to resolve disputes through political and diplomatic means. He therefore encouraged those two countries to meet each other halfway and properly resolve disputes pursuant to international law. China supports any diplomatic efforts that contribute to this goal and will continue to play a constructive role towards this end, he added.
ROBERT A. WOOD (United States) said that impediment to use the Lachin Corridor sets back the peace process and undermines the international confidence in it. He called on Azerbaijan and others responsible for the Corridor’s security to restore free movement, including for humanitarian and commercial use. Encouraged by the restoration of gas supplies to Nagorno-Karabakh, he said any attempts to cut essential services were unacceptable. Outstanding grievances between Armenia and Azerbaijan must be solved through peaceful negotiations, he stressed, encouraging the parties to recommit to the peace process and re-establish the lines of communication across diplomatic channels. He reiterated his country’s readiness to facilitate dialogue, bilaterally, trilaterally and in coordination with the European Union and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
ANNA M. EVSTIGNEEVA (Russian Federation) expressed concern over the blocking of the Lachin Corridor, which resulted from disagreements on the development of ore deposits in the region. Noting that the Corridor ensures a link between Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia, she said that it is under the control of a Russian peacekeeping contingent, which remains a guarantor of stability in the region and is carrying out its objectives effectively. She recalled that both sides undertook commitments that must be strictly observed — including the obligation to ensure civilians do not face difficulties — and said that her country expects that a full transport corridor will be restored “in the very near future”. Over the course of recent days, the Russian Federation has organized regular contact with Armenia and Azerbaijan and, as a result, the supply of gas to Nagorno-Karabakh has been resumed, the Lachin Corridor has been partially opened to traffic and parameters have been agreed upon regarding Azerbaijan’s visits to ore deposits in Nagorno-Karabakh. Stating her country’s expectation that all agreements arrived at with Moscow’s mediation will be implemented, she called on Azerbaijan and Armenia to exercise restraint, refrain from steps that increase tensions and abide by agreements reached in four trilateral statements between the leaders of the three countries. Full implementation of such provisions is the most-sustainable way to normalize relations between Baku and Yerevan, she added.
JAMES KARIUKI (United Kingdom) said his country remains deeply concerned by the recent closure of the Lachin Corridor. Noting that he was pleased that the gas supply to the region has been reinstated, he called for the Corridor’s immediate reopening. As it is the only means by which daily necessities can be delivered to the region, its closure for over a week raises the potential for severe humanitarian consequences, even more so in the winter. The unimpeded return of civilians who have been stranded by the closure must be urgently prioritized, he stressed. Only through diplomacy in line with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations can lasting peace be achieved, he emphasized, reiterating his country’s support to the internationally-led negotiation efforts seeking to secure peace and stability in the region.
RONALDO COSTA FILHO (Brazil) expressed his concerns over the reports of restrictions on the freedom of movement in the Lachin Corridor. Any obstruction jeopardizes the well-being of the people of Nagorno-Karabakh and threatens the reconciliation process between Armenia and Azerbaijan in a conflict that has already cost thousands of human lives, he stressed, while noting that recent tensions have, fortunately, not translated into episodes of violence. Therefore, parties must show restraint in their rhetoric so that harsh words are not interpreted as incitement to renewed hostilities. Channels of dialogue must be kept open and confidence-building measures adopted in order to objectively clarify facts and find pragmatic solutions. In recognizing the Russian Federation’s mediation efforts which have contributed to the resumption of the region’s gas supplies, he encouraged other members to act in an equally constructive way to prevent the crisis from escalating and avert the dangers of a worsening humanitarian situation. As the trilateral statement on the ceasefire of 9 November 2020 offers an initial road map for peacebuilding, parties must refrain from actions that could characterize violations of its terms. They must ensure the necessary conditions for the established commission to successfully carry out its mandate and demarcate the bilateral border, he emphasized.
JAYNE JEPKORIR TOROITICH (Kenya), voicing concern about reports of the ongoing blockades along the Lachin Corridor, called on all sides to de-escalate current tensions and cooperate in ensuring freedom and security of movement along the corridor, in line with the previously reached agreements. The parties should exercise maximum restraint and refrain from engaging in misinformation and disinformation which could spark panic among the populations and undermine efforts to contain the situation and restore calm and understanding. There cannot be a military solution. The deployment of tools available in the Charter of the United Nations for the pacific settlement of disputes, including consultations and negotiations, offer the best chances for win-win outcomes. She encouraged the stakeholders to continue to work with the two sides to find a comprehensive and sustainable settlement to the conflict and for the normalization of relations based on mutual recognition and respect for each other's sovereignty and territorial integrity within their State borders.
JUAN GÓMEZ ROBLEDO VERDUZCO (Mexico), noting his country is following with concern the tensions surrounding the situation in the Lachin Corridor and the potential humanitarian implications of traffic blockages, called for free movement in line with the trilateral statement on the ceasefire of 9 November 2020. International law, in particular international humanitarian law, must be respected, he emphasized. He urged the parties to respect and fully implement all of the agreement’s provisions and resolve their differences through dialogue. He then called upon all international protagonists capable of exerting influence or dialogue with the parties to urge them to resolve their differences through diplomacy. Above all, Mexico urges that the parties must avoid any action that could raise tensions or trigger an escalation in violence. The human cost in past crises has already been very high and any situation that could put the civilian population in danger must be avoided, he underscored.
MONA JUUL (Norway), voicing regret over the recent rise in tensions, expressed her concern over the developments in the Lachin Corridor and its potential for the region’s further destabilization. The Corridor’s blockage has already resulted in severe humanitarian implications and the interruption of medical supplies and evacuations, she noted. As any disruptions to the supply of essential goods and services harms the most vulnerable groups first, such disruptions can and must be avoided. Calling on the parties to adhere to the agreements articulated in the trilateral statement on the ceasefire of 9 November 2020, she stressed that Azerbaijan in particular must guarantee safe movement. “It is in nobody’s interest to trigger an avoidable humanitarian situation in Nagorno-Karabakh,” she underscored. Parties must show maximum restraint, undertake steps to de-escalate the situation and return to the negotiating table in good faith and without preconditions. The international community cannot just “weather the storm” in the hopes that it will go away, she added. She then reiterated her country’s support for the ongoing mediation efforts in the region and welcomed the endeavours of the international community to help advance negotiations.
KHALILAH HACKMAN (Ghana) said the permanency of ethnic, cultural and historical identities demands the two sides and the international community to devise ways for the peaceful coexistence of peoples within the modern conceptualization of the State under international law. In calling for the de-escalation of tensions, she urged the parties to refrain from unilateral actions and inflammatory rhetoric. As State authorities endeavour to forge peace through the implementation of existing ceasefire arrangements, communities themselves must be equally committed to resolve any emerging disputes through dialogue and constructive actions. Local leaders and civil society must support peace efforts by facilitating intercommunal discourse and avoiding divisive action, she added. She then reiterated her country’s call for the parties to remain committed to all trilateral statements and ensure the consistent implementation of their responsibilities in accordance with the trilateral statement on the ceasefire of 9 November 2020, especially as it concerns the Lachin Corridor. For its part, the international community must support the normalization of relations between the two countries, facilitate negotiations and implement confidence- and trust-building measures. Existing peace endeavours must be coherent, coordinated and centred on the principles of international law and the Charter of the United Nations, she underscored. She also emphasized the need to prioritize the humanitarian interests of civilian populations. Any real or perceived blockage of the Lachin Corridor must be addressed as a matter of urgency to ensure the interrupted and safe movement of all persons.
MARTIN GALLAGHER (Ireland) called on the Council to do everything it can to prevent another human-made catastrophe emerging on its watch. Without the free movement of people, goods, food and medical supplies, the people of Nagorno-Karabakh will surely face a humanitarian crisis this winter. As such, Azerbaijan must immediately and unconditionally restore freedom and security of movement along with the Corridor in line with the trilateral statement on the ceasefire of 9 November 2020. As States parties to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Armenia and Azerbaijan have an obligation to ensure the right to peaceful assembly. Any legitimate exercise of this right must be respected while also ensuring that it does not compromise public safety, public health and the rights and freedoms of others, he underscored. Violence can never be the answer. Now is the time for restraint and de-escalation, moderated rhetoric, a refrain from threats and provocation and the continuation of reconciliation efforts, he continued. He then reiterated his country’s supported for a negotiated, comprehensive and sustainable settlement of the conflict, the international format of the OSCE Minsk Group to pursue this objective and the active engagement of the European Union. All Council members must support the common goal of a South Caucasus where people can live in peace, security and prosperity.
EDWIGE KOUMBY MISSAMBO (Gabon) expressed concern regarding the closure of the Lachin Corridor, which could result in a humanitarian crisis. The right to move through the Corridor must be guaranteed, she stressed, highlighting the importance of drawing lessons from the large-scale September clashes and calling on all parties to restrain from provocative rhetoric and abide by the ceasefire agreement. Recognizing the position of Azerbaijan’s authorities, she encouraged an independent investigation. Reiterating the need to continue negotiating on the basis of the tripartite agreement, she urged both parties to de-escalate and lower tensions. She also urged the international community to promote dialogue and encouraged stakeholders to support all regional initiatives that could lead to building lasting peace.
RAVINDRA RAGUTTAHALLI (India), Council President for December, spoke in his national capacity to state that the reported blockade of the Lachin Corridor may adversely affect the supply of essential items, such as food and medicine, to Nagorno-Karabakh. This is concerning, as it has the potential to precipitate a humanitarian crisis. He joined the Secretary-General in calling for de-escalating tensions and ensuring the freedom and security of movement along the corridor in line with previously reached agreements. Also supporting ongoing mediation in the region, he encouraged both sides to pursue diplomatic pathways to arrive at a lasting peaceful solution. The global order is anchored on international law, the Charter of the United Nations and respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of all States, he added.
MHER MARGARYAN (Armenia) said that the alarming situation in Nagorno-Karabakh is close to turning into a humanitarian catastrophe. Despite the efforts of peacekeeping forces on the ground, negotiations by the Nagorno-Karabakh authorities with the Azerbaijani side to restore the Lachin Corridor’s safe and unhindered operation have not yielded results. That ongoing blockade is not just one isolated case, but another demonstration of systematic violence used by the Azerbaijani authorities to subject the people of Nagorno-Karabakh to ethnic cleansing. If Azerbaijan is interested in an independent assessment of the area’s environmental situation, then consideration could be given to deploying a United Nations fact-finding mission, he added. Further, Azerbaijan is still disregarding the International Court of Justice Order on the Provisional Measures issued under the Convention on Elimination of Racial Discrimination against Azerbaijan in December 2021, in relation to the humanitarian obligations vis-à-vis the Armenian prisoners of war. The unabated provocations and aggressive actions of Azerbaijan have shown that, without strong accountability measures, including application of sanctions, that country will continue to test the resilience and the determination of the international community and the Council.
Cognizant of the deep-running disagreements among Council members related to the ongoing major crisis in Europe, he said that the growing energy challenges means some international community members opt to engage more closely with a hydro-carbon exporting State, like Azerbaijan. However, such engagement should not put the principles of justice, humanity, dignity and freedom on the line and cannot be conducted at the expense of the fundamental human rights and physical security of the people of Nagorno-Karabakh. He urged the Council to take actions to demand that Azerbaijan fully respect the provisions of the trilateral statement of 9 November 2020 and immediately unblock the Lachin Corridor by removing all obstacles for safe, secure and unimpeded transport communication. He also asked the Council to deploy a fact-finding mission to Nagorno-Karabakh and the Corridor to assess the humanitarian situation on the ground and to ensure the United Nation’s agencies’ unimpeded humanitarian access to Nagorno-Karabakh. The Council must uphold its responsibility to maintain international peace and security and to strongly condemn the aggressive actions of Azerbaijan that pose an existential threat to the people of Nagorno-Karabakh and their right to live freely and in dignity without fear of outside oppression, he stressed.
YASHAR T. ALIYEV (Azerbaijan), expressing his regret over Armenia’s exploitation of the Council, pointed out that what is erroneously called “Nagorno-Karabakh” is the internationally recognized sovereign territory of his country. The legal title of this area is the Karabakh economic region. On the situation concerning the Lachin Corridor, he resolutely rejected all of Armenia’s claims, providing an overview of its invasion, occupation and its return to his country. Neither his Government nor the protesting activists have blocked the Corridor, he emphasized, adding that movement of citizens, goods and vehicles remains unchanged with peacekeepers continuing to perform their duties to protect the route. However, Armenia has refused to fully withdraw its armed forces and share the complete set of maps of the mines it placed in his country. Instead, it has continued its illegal military activities and planted new mines, resulting in fatalities of Azerbaijani people. Armenia is trying to inflict as many human losses as possible to impede Azerbaijan’s reconstruction projects and the return of internally displaced persons to their homes.
The Lachin Corridor has also been misused for the illicit trafficking of minerals and other resources from Azerbaijan, which his Government has consistently raised to the attention of the international community, he continued. The recent incident preventing Azerbaijan from conducting on-site inspections of mineral deposits and assessing potential environmental damage resulted in the peaceful protests by eco-activists on the road. As such, a material breach of the trilateral statement on the ceasefire of 9 November 2020 cannot be tolerated. Azerbaijan will continue to defend its sovereignty and territorial integrity. On guaranteeing its citizens of Armenian origin the rights and freedoms enjoyed by all, he stressed that this is a domestic matter in which his Government will not allow external interference. He also highlighted several provocations of third countries in raising tensions and undermining the fragile normalization process. He called on the international community to persuade Armenia to reciprocate his Government’s offer: abide by its international obligations; end its illegal activities, territorial claims and political and military provocations; abandon its aggressive rhetoric and actions; redress the harm it caused; and engage in good faith in direct negotiations. Third parties must refrain from one-sided actions and statements emboldening revanchism in Armenia to the detriment of emerging perspectives on regional normalization, he emphasized.